How to Prune or Trim Young Trees for Structure and Form

How to Prune or Trim Young Trees for Structure and Form

We love the look of our mature trees after a timely prune. They’re crisp, clean cut and ready to grow a healthy canopy.

But did you know that young, or newly planted trees, also like to be trimmed?

We had to share the knowledge - especially since a reader reached out to learn more about this. Specifically, he asked, “I planted a small tree that had multiple branches growing from the bottom area of the trunk. I wanted one main trunk, so I trimmed off two other branches. Did I hurt the tree?

Below we dive into that question - along with how and why to shape young trees.

Should you prune young trees? Why?

New trees need help finding their way during their early years. Without your guidance, young trees can start to branch out in the wrong direction.

To wrangle their wild tendencies, prune them to provide a stable structure.

While forest trees compete for sunlight in close quarters, urban trees have plenty of light - sometimes all to themselves. Newly planted trees happily soak up the sun, causing multiple branches to grow that compete with one another to become the “leader.”

Despite having many strong branches, this makes the tree overall weaker. Without a defined trunk, trees lack the central frame needed to withstand storm damage. Plus, this could cause future structural issues, which can be costly to fix later.

How do you train young trees with pruning?

To make room for the leading limb, arborists select a central branch that’s free of damage, wounds or defects. Then, they identify competing stems to shorten or remove.

Riding your tree of rival branches is called structural or subordinate pruning. The goal is to encourage the tree’s leader to grow by trimming competing branches.

Training your young tree to grow the right way is simple and quick. Plus, this small step can often prevent expensive or damaging structural corrections later.

As always, before DIY-ing this project, consult your arborist to avoid severe or long-term damage from an improper cut. Rule of thumb: no more than 25% of the canopy should be removed at a time. 

Any tips on when to prune young trees?

When you first plant a tree, trim away any broken, defected or damaged branches to prevent future issues.

Then, wait.

Two to three years after planting, you’ll see tree branches sprout into competition. When you see this happening, schedule your subordinate pruning with your local arborist.

Questions about shaping your young tree? Leave a comment below, and you’ll hear from us soon!

  • The Tree Doctor May 26, 2017 >Hi Lynn. Great question about whether you should remove a trunk now or later. Without seeing the tree, it's hard to make that call. Instead, could you please send a picture of the tree to us at blog@davey.com? With that, we should be able to provide a better answer for you, Lynn.
  • Lynn Swanson April 28, 2017 >I have a young Olive tree with 4 trunks. I want to keep it a multi trunk tree, but should I remove 1 or more of the trunks now? The tree is about 7 ft tall now and I have pruned it to lift the canopy to approx 30 in so far.
  • The Tree Doctor April 13, 2017 >Hi there, Mick. Thanks for reaching out about your ironwood tree. It does sound like it was going through some adjustments. From what you've shared, though, now seems like a good time to start pruning, so your tree can develop a stable structure. If it is a city tree, it might be the municipality's responsibility to prune. They typically don't mind if a quality tree company handles the pruning, but it may need to be done based on certain specs. If it's a city tree, reach out to the municipality to see what they say. If it's your tree, reach out to a local, certified arborist for help. Here if there's anything else we can do to help, Mick.
  • Mick Garrison April 9, 2017 >We have used your service several times in the past, working with Loren. Three and a half years ago, the city cut down a diseased Ash tree growing on the area between the sidewalk and street. We took advantage of the 50/50 deal the city offered and had an Ironwood planted. We knew that it was a slow growing tree. After planting we noticed some dead spots where branches were not budding. There were bare spots. We removed some of the dead twigs, but left others that looked like they might "come back". After 3 seasons the tree is filling out but I think it could benefit from a "selective pruning." What do you recommend?
  • The Tree Doctor October 28, 2016 >Hi there, Debra! This is a tough one. Without seeing the tree in person, we can't confidently make a recommendation of whether you should trim now or wait. If you send a few pictures to blog@davey.com, we can hopefully provide a more detailed answer. Or, you can schedule a free consultation with your local Davey arborist. They'd provide more insight into this while also evaluating your fire glow maple's overall health. You can reach them at 703. 297.3002 or by connecting online here: davey.com/local-offices/northern-virginia-tree-service/#main-form
  • Debra Simon October 28, 2016 >I have a fire glow maple planted 1 year ago. It is about 7-8 feet tall. There are some limbs growing wildly on the tree and the shape does not look good. Since it has only been planted for 1 year should we wait until next year?
  • Lillian Schaeffer October 6, 2016 >These are some great tips, and I appreciate your advice to have subordinate pruning done by an arborist two to three years after planting a tree. My husband and I planted a tree several years ago, and it's starting to grow competing branches. We want to keep it looking nice, so we'll definitely look into having a professional come and help us with subordinate pruning. Thanks for the great post!
  • Kody Loveless August 23, 2016 >I like the idea of getting rid of rival branches. I had never thought of it before, but it really would help the good branches grow nice and strong. I think it would make a better-looking adult tree. I will have to try that out with some of my new trees in the backyard.
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