Looking for dense, delicious shade? Then the pin oak tree might be for you.
It’s one of the toughest, fastest-growing shade trees around, with a symmetrical, pyramidal shape that boasts large leaves. This makes it stand unique among other oaks.
Then when fall arrives, you get delighted by a red and deep bronze color display that lasts for at least a month. In the winter, fall leaves persist for a bit until they drop and then the highest branches stand upright with thick, middle, horizontal branches and low branches that sweep away from the trunk, hanging down.
Think you have a pin oak tree in your yard or maybe you’re looking for one to plant? Let’s look at the definitive characteristics of pin oaks and the care they require.
How to Identify a Pin Oak
Many people love the pin oak as a landscape and street tree in the eastern United States. It even grows naturally in wetlands and floodplains from the mid-Atlantic states west to the Great Plains.
This love for soggy conditions is what gives the pin oak its nickname of swamp oak.
The pin oak tree leaves stand out among other oaks because they are large and pointed with sweeping, U-shaped spaces in between lobes. Leaves, which are dark green with paler undersides, range in size from 3 to 6 inches long.
Pin oak tree bark is grayish-brown in color with a rough, ridged texture.
Tree Species Similar to Pin Oak
There are several other types of oaks that resemble a pin oak or have similar characteristics. Let’s take a look at some common ones.
Scarlet oak - This medium-sized oak grows between 60 and 100 feet tall. It can be distinguished from the pin oak tree by its lobed leaves with C-shaped notches, not U-shaped ones.
Laurel oak - The laurel oak is a semi-evergreen species of oak that grows between 60 and 70 feet tall. Like the pin oak, it’s native to the east coast of the United States, where it can thrive in soggy soil, which gives it the nickname swamp laurel oak or water oak. Laurel oaks have diamond-shaped, shiny, green leaves.
Willow oak – Willow oak has a similar branch structure and soil tolerances to pin oak. This tree grows 1 to 2 feet in height per year to a maximum of 40 to 60 feet in height with 30 to 40 feet in spread. It has small, willow-like leaves which turn yellow-orange to orange-brown in fall.
Red oak - Red oak trees make great street trees because they tolerate urban pollution and compact soils. These trees grow slower than pin oak trees at 2 feet per year to reach 60 to 75 feet in height and a spread of 45 feet.
Black oak - This oak has dark, shiny leaves that are 5 to 9 inches long with paler undersides similar to pin oak tree leaves. This tree reaches 50 to 60 feet high with large, spreading branches.
How to Care for a Pin Oak Tree
- Grow zones: A pin oak grows best in USDA Hardiness Zones 4 to 8, which is a cool climate suitable for growing plants hardy enough to withstand freezing temperatures. Most consider the pin oak tree growth rate to be a very fast one. The tree will increase in size by 24 inches each year.
- Where to plant: Pin oaks have also been known as swamp oaks because they like moist -- even wet -- soil. They can do well in areas that don’t have the best drainage. They prefer most types of acidic soils and also tolerate heavy clay soil.
- Height/spread: Pin oaks can reach a height of 60 to 70 feet and a spread of 25 to 40 feet at maturity.
- Sunlight: Full sun is great for pin oaks. Plant this tree in an area that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight daily.
- Flowering dates: Pin oak flowers emerge soon after new leaves in spring -- from April to mid-May.
- Best time to prune: To avoid any complications with oak wilt fungus, it’s best to prune pin oaks during the dormant seasons -- from November through February.
- Deer resistance: Pin oak trees are mildly resistant to damage by deer.
Oak wilt and oak blister are the pin oak tree diseases you should be most concerned with preventing when planting a pin oak. Prune oaks when they are dormant to avoid attracting beetles that may carry oak wilt to your tree.
When pin oaks are planted in excessively alkaline soils, they may also experience yellowing of leaves. Avoid planting in these soil conditions to ensure this chlorosis doesn’t impact your pin oak.